Seed germination are very staggered in both absolute (Stacy, Harischandran, and you may Gunatilleke, in push) and greenhouse setup, stretching more than >cuatro mo. At 100 d once planting (whenever germination are ?95% complete), the fresh rates from seeds germinated was basically moderate, ranging all over treatments off 21 to forty-two% from sown vegetables (indicate = 36%; pooled around the maternal trees; Fig. 3a). Aside from the unusually high germination rates noticed to the nearby-neighbors therapy within Forest # 3 (83.3%), the connection between crossing range and seed germination try nearly the same to that getting fruits set for this types (Fig. 3a). Plus all the investigation affairs, suggest vegetables germination wasn’t somewhat additional one of providers, neither among maternal trees (Desk 3A). Excluding the single outlier didn’t change the Aong hand-pollination treatments, level suggest seed germination coincided which have level good fresh fruit put within a keen outcrossing point of just one–2 kilometer and you may is actually almost just like the newest imply germination away from open-pollinated seeds (Fig. 3a).
Germination of experimental seeds was rapid and fairly even across treatments (mean = 62%; range: 55–72% at 45 d; Fig. 3b). A steady increase in mean seed germination with outcrossing distance is apparent, but not significant (F1,nine = 1.02, P < 0.34, R 2 = 0.40; Fig. 3b). Mean seed germination was not significantly different among treatments, nor among maternal trees (Table 3B). Interestingly, mean seed germination for all hand-pollination treatments exceeded that of open-pollinated seeds (Fig. 3b). While the reason for this observation is not known, the latter estimates were based on much larger sample sizes and therefore may be more robust.
Seedling survivorship and you will growth
On account of attrition in one life phase to the next, sample items of a few procedures categories was indeed lowest to have rates away from seedling survivorship and you may progress, which have hampered statistical evaluation. Zero tall ramifications of possibly crossing cures otherwise maternal tree was indeed located to have sometimes level in both variety (Desk step 3). Leaving out selfed cures seedlings out of S. rubicundum (Letter = 2), the fresh new imply survivorship rates away from seedlings during their first year try higher (>80%) for all providers off both species. For both varieties, top suggest seedling survivorship coincided on distant inside-tree therapy.
Getting S. rubicundum, mean seedling peak at 1 year postgermination enhanced which have outcrossing range, peaking in the an intermate length of just one–2 km, and you will losing some on the longest distance crosses (Fig. 4a). For Sh. cordifolia, suggest seedling peak enhanced continuously which have outcrossing point, peaking on longest-range mix (Fig. 4b). For varieties, within-medication version from inside the seedling peak is higher (Fig. 4). To own S. rubicundum, type for the seedling peak are explained, about partly, from the staggered seed germination.
For each species, the cumulative fitness of each treatment class was calculated as the standardized product of the four fitness measures (see Fig. 5). For both species, the distribution of cumulative fitness with respect to crossing distance was similar to that for fruit set (Fig. 5). For S sites de rencontrer sikhs. rubicundum, variation in cumulative fitness among treatments was highly significant (Table 3A); mean cumulative fitness of the distant within-forest treatment was 4–25 times the means for other hand-pollination treatments and twice that of open-pollinated flowers. The relationship between outcrossing distance and cumulative fitness was nearly significant (quadratic regression: F2,10 = 3.84, P = 0.056). Mean cumulative fitness (relative) was not significantly different between the distant between-forest treatment (mean = 0.07) and all within-forest outcrossed classes combined (mean = 0.24, Fstep one,12 = 1.69, P = 0.219), due to the strong near-neighbor effect on cumulative fitness.