Lexical semantics ‘s the examination of term meaning. Descriptively speaking, the main topics learned within lexical semantics include often the inner semantic framework of conditions, or even the semantic interactions you to exists into the code. For the basic set, significant phenomena include polysemy (alternatively which have vagueness), metonymy, metaphor, and you may prototypicality. Inside the next place, dominant topics become lexical fields, lexical relations, conceptual metaphor and metonymy, and frames. Officially talking, the main theoretical ways which have succeeded one another on the history of lexical semantics try prestructuralist historical semantics, structuralist semantics, and intellectual semantics. These theoretical buildings differ regarding if they capture a network-dependent in lieu of a great incorporate-depending method to phrase-meaning look however,, meanwhile, regarding the historic development of this new discipline, they have for each and every shared significantly with the descriptive and you will abstract tools away from lexical semantics.
Lexical semantics is the study of word definition. The second first presents an introduction to area of the phenomena learned inside lexical semantics right after which charts the different theoretic way of life you to definitely have triggered the development of industry. The main focus depends on the newest lexicological study of term meaning since a phenomenon in very own proper, as opposed to to your correspondence which have nearby procedures. This means you to definitely morphological semantics, that’s the study of the definition out-of morphemes plus the manner in which they mix toward terminology, is not secured, as it’s always noticed another community regarding lexical semantics proper. Similarly, new program ranging from lexical semantics and you can syntax will never be talked about widely, since it is reported to be out of top desire for syntactic theorizing. There is absolutely no space to go over the partnership ranging from lexical semantics and you may lexicography just like the a practiced discipline. To possess an entrance-top text message towards the lexical semantics, pick Murphy (2010); to own a very thorough and you can intricate post on an element of the historical and you can contemporary styles of research for the lexical semantics, discover Geeraerts (2010).
Area of the phenomena studied because of the lexical semantics is actually structured together one or two dimensions. Basic, it generates a change whether we take a look at semantic phenomena within personal conditions otherwise if we examine significant structures for the words overall. Terminologically, so it differences away from position will likely be expressed of the writing about an effective ‘semasiological’ and you will a keen ‘onomasiological’ direction. (Semasiology talks about the connection ranging from words and meaning to your phrase given that first rung on the ladder: it is basically looking the latest polysemy out of terminology. Onomasiology requires the new converse position: considering a notion becoming conveyed or a thing become categorized, what alternatives does a words render, and exactly how certainly are the alternatives made?) Second, a positive change https://datingranking.net/cs/geek2geek-recenze/ should be generated anywhere between an approach you to definitely concentrates toward elements and you can interactions just and one that takes under consideration the distinctions away from structural pounds ranging from those individuals elements and you will relationships. Although the terminology aren’t perfect, we can use the conditions ‘qualitative approach’ and you can ‘quantitative approach’ to mention to that particular 2nd variation. Whenever we get across-identify the two variations, we get five sets of topics. ‘Qualitative’ semasiology works together with word sensory faculties plus the semantic backlinks among those senses, particularly metaphor and you can metonymy at the number of personal conditions. ‘Qualitative’ onomasiology deals with the brand new semantic interactions certainly lexical situations, including lexical industries and you may lexical affairs. ‘Quantitative’ semasiology works with prototype outcomes: variations from salience and architectural pounds in this a product or service otherwise a meaning. ‘Quantitative’ onomasiology works together salience outcomes on lexicon in particular, eg basic-height phenomena.
Table step one The new Descriptive Extent out of Lexical Semantics
The five groups of subject areas was summarized from inside the Table 1. As the could well be viewed after, it schematic logo is additionally advantageous to identify the fresh new contribution of various theoretical means having successively controlled the new development off lexical semantics.